Electoral harassment

In Safe Elections, Democracy Wins: Perceptions of Electoral Harassment among Candidates and Voters

We find that there are on average, three different forms of electoral harassment (most commonly spreading disinformation, defaming campaigns, and website jamming or harassment of online accounts). Nearly half of the voters do not observe any forms of harassment. For both voters and candidates, young age and exposure to social media increase the tendency to observe electoral harassment, while affiliation with center-right parties has a negative association.